Restorative justice began in the mid-70s of the twentieth century as a movement for change in approaches to crime and punishment. It is based on the approach to crime that focuses on the consequences of a decision by the parties to the crime and society in general.
Currently, restorative justice is seen as a movement for justice, which complements the official form of justice involves the parties themselves and the public in the decision of the consequences of crime, promoting resocialization of the offender and reducing the number of criminal penalties.
Restorative justice aims not to cancel the formal justice, and make it through the use of a particular method of resolving criminal cases reducing in nature. Typically, the program of restorative justice implemented through a partnership of public and justice. As part of the partnership developed the procedure for sending cases and determined the legal significance of the results obtained during the passage of participants in such programs.
There are several models (forms) of restorative justice. The most common ones:
program of reconciliation between victims and offenders (also known as mediation or mediation, and reconciliation of victims and offenders, victims and offenders conference);
wheels of justice - programs based on the traditions of North American Indians, which are held primarily in Canada;
family conference, the birthplace of which - New Zealand, where they were institutionalized, and are based on the traditions of indigenous people - Maori.
Today, restorative justice is successfully operating in various forms in such regions as Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, and in most countries it is not only implemented as pilot programs, and enshrined in national legislation.